Assembly Language Statements

(b) Demonstrate the ability to debug a running C program in memory, to include the inspection of processor registers and arbitrary memory locations. Data declaration: reserving space in memory, or deciding that a certain data item will reside. So let us just implement this in Assembly language and try to figure out how we can write these statements using Assembly language with 8051 instruction set. print multiple statements in next line assembly language, Search on print multiple statements in next line assembly language. complement condition (saves a branch on. A stand-alone low-level language. Other chapters of this manual provide more information about assembler directives and macros. Since the General Assembly is the legislative body for the state, the location of its meetings has moved along with each move of the state capitol. ASSEMBLER Pass 1 Assembler: Software that translates assembly language into machine language. The Council of Europe is the continent's leading human rights organisation. Nostalgia alert. Instructions are MIPS machine instructions or pseudoinstructions specifying program runtime actions. languages such as C and C++. Subroutines, MIPS Assembly Language Programming. Strengthening synergies between the World Health Assembly and the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control A69/11 Add. In most assembly languages, each instruction corresponds to a single machine instruction; however, some assembly language instructions can generate several machine instructions. c This will cause gcc to run the compiler, generating an assembly file. How to Use Inline Assembly Language in C Code¶. 6 Boolean logic instructions 2. Basic Elements of Assembly Language Data Types. The assembly language stage is often skipped…. C is a procedural programming language. As such, labels are 32-bit values when they are used in assembly language programs. ANA develops positions relevant to nursing practice, health policy, and social concerns impacting the health of patients and families; and our position statements guide the profession, amplify the views of nursing, and educate consumers and decision makers. This guide describes the basics of 32-bit x86 assembly language programming, covering a small but useful subset of the available instructions and assembler directives. 2 Data transfer instructions 2. Terra was designed so that it can run independently. 1 describes the. Each assembly language statement appears on its own line in the source file. PBASIC's IfThen statement allows you to compare two numbers up to 16 bits in length and make a decision (jump to a program address) based on the outcome of the comparison. Assembly language is one step ahead of machine language. The topic of free speech is one of the most contentious issues in liberal societies. This article covers the code generation for if-else and switch statements. For example, given the declarations shown in Example 2. Assembly language is a low-level programming language. We do not have any document for this combination of Country(Language) and Catalog Number. Provides a handful of data declarations, machine instructions, and high-level control statements. It only considers boolean expressions as conditions that return TRUE or FALSE. Chapter 3: Assembly Language and Memory Objectives: (a) Explain the operations of several basic assembly language commands, including mov, cmp, jmp, jle, jne and inc. In other words, the interpreter subroutine expects to find the code it is going to interpret following the assembly language instruction which called it. Assembly Language can be Written in C. Note that extended asm statements must be inside a function. If and Loop Statements in MIPS Branch Instructions In the MIPS assembly language, there are only two types of conditional branch instructions. The Third Session of the 59th Legislative Assembly stands adjourned until Tuesday, March 10, 2020. Ellard September, 1994. edu) CSA Department Miami University 1. Scott, in Programming Language Pragmatics (Third Edition), 2009. GNU C compiler i. It is hard for humans to keep track of those ones and zeros. Looking for symbolic assembly language listing? Find out information about symbolic assembly language listing. For each executable assembly language statement Generate the corresponding machine language instruction If operand is a label, look up the address from the symbol table Potential errors: Improper number or type of arguments ¾E. As shown in above Program , "asm" Keyword is written to indicate that "next followed instruction is from Assembly Language". Assembly language branch statements? We've just started branch statements in assembly language at college. , destination register first Machine language is the underlying reality e. Assembly level programming is very important to low-level embedded system design is used to access the processor instructions to manipulate hardware. Introduction to Machine- and Assembly-Language Programming Chapter 1 - Getting Started All of the familiar computer languages are compiled or interpreted languages. Unlike other languages, java does not accept numbers as conditional operators. In the IBM conditional assembly language, the most important statements are: MACRO and MEND - used to start and finish a macro; AIF, AGO, ANOP, AEND, AEXIT and MEXIT - used to control the generation of different assembly language statements, depending on the nature of the macro’s supplied arguments. Provides a handful of data declarations, machine instructions, and high-level control statements. Once a programmer learns the languages rules, syntax, and structure, they write the source code in a text editor or IDE. Welcome - Guest!. Assembly programming is often a crucial starting point when computer programmers are learning their craft. An assembly language is a programming language that can be used to directly tell the computer what to do. The ability to synthesize text, however, presents many potential risks, while access to the technology required to build generative models is becoming increasingly easy. A program should. Directives are instructions to the assembler, specifying an action to be taken during assembly. I have tried doing as skaa said, but that did not help. Slt is a MIPS Assembly instruction stand for "Set If Less Than". Other Interesting Articles in Assembly Language: Program to find the length of a string Use subroutine; PROGRAM TO CHANGE THE SIZE OF CURSOR; Program to get the message and print the same when enter key is pressed; Program that prompts the user to type a hex number of four hex digits or less, and outputs it in binary on the next line. We have already covered C function calls and other C statements in previous articles. Learn Assembly Language The x86 Adventures series teaches you your computer's language - x86 Assembly language, from scratch. This is the chip we introduced in the previous article. if x > y then x:= x + y else x:= x - y HLL (High Level Language) programs are machine independent. Imagine doing it in C, but using if (tests), goto and labels instead of blocks. Category: Assembly Language Programs Computer Organisation and Assembly Language Programming Tags: Assembly, ASSEMBLY08, decimal, inputs, out, print, program, read, sum, their, two Post navigation ← ASSEMBLY07 An Assembly program to convert ASCII code to its BCD equivalent ASSEMBLY09 An Assembly program to read in two decimal inputs and print. Each statement must be one of the following types: An empty statement is one that contains nothing other than spaces, tabs, or formfeed characters. Potential problems: •Improper number or type of arguments ex: NOTR1,#7 ADDR1,R2 ADDR3,R3,NUMBER •Immediate argument too large. With the right punctuation, it can sometimes stand on its own, although it can also be a part of a sentence. An assembler is used to translate the assembly language statements into machine language. The assembly code exactly mirrors the C code. There are several different assembly languages for generating x86 machine code. The asm keyword allows you to embed assembler instructions within C code. Assembler directives are assembler commands that are used. Reports to the General Assembly. MIPS Assembly 17 CS @VT Computer Organization II ©2005-2013 McQuain Basic fact: at the machine language level there are no explicit data types, only contents of memory locations. languages such as C and C++. By using symbols programmers gain flexibility in describing the computation. Doubts on how to use Github? Learn everything you need to know in this tutorial. While it is important to be able to denote that a certain sequence of instructions is special (e. The assembler converts assembly language statements into machine code. The duration of the comprehensive program is 40 days; it can be adjusted to different topics and adjusted duration. They are easy to learn, easy to use, and convenient for managing complex tasks. Complete Boolean. The principal business of Toronto, Canada-based Almonty Industries Inc. Now we will write another Assembly program which read a character from console and echo it. When the routine exits, the saved registers are pulled from the stack. Another reason for using dummy statements is to trick or satisfy the compiler. No prior knowledge is assumed. attr (C++11): any number of attributes: condition - any expression of integral or enumeration type, or of a class type contextually implicitly convertible to an integral or enumeration type, or a declaration of a single non-array variable of such type with a brace-or-equals initializer. We've commented a little more than usual (by adding cond1, cond2, if-body, else-body) to make it easier to understand. An exclusive, personalised Web TV to create more value for Sponsors of Medical Meetings. CS1101: Systems Organisation The Assembly Language Level Format of Assembly Language Statements • See Figure 7-2 • Assembly language statements have four parts: – a label field, – an operation (opcode) field, – an operands field, – a comments field. If the symbol begins with a letter the statement is an assembly language instruction: it assembles into a machine language instruction. Assembly language program ADD r4,r5 compiler to machine for execution However, low-level assembly language is often used for programming directly. Every possible path through the main method code should end with a HALT statement. The students were. Our assembly language programming assignment help experts can help you learn gain more insight on these compilers such as memmove, memset or fillchar and. as long as you comprehend the needed usefulness of loops, understanding different languages wont extremely help you in any respect. Other Interesting Articles in Assembly Language: Program to find the length of a string Use subroutine; PROGRAM TO CHANGE THE SIZE OF CURSOR; Program to get the message and print the same when enter key is pressed; Program that prompts the user to type a hex number of four hex digits or less, and outputs it in binary on the next line. If liberty of expression is not highly valued, as has often been the case, there is no problem; freedom of expression is simply curtailed in favor of other values. Another reason for using dummy statements is to trick or satisfy the compiler. Automated text generation has been applied broadly in many domains such as marketing and robotics, and used to create chatbots, product reviews and write poetry. high level language to assembly level 2. Every assembler has its own assembly language, which is designed for one specific computer architecture. A computer understands instructions in machine code, i. Assembly Language Bubble Sort By Adrian Dery. • Exists a more efficient method (See section 3. In line assembly Assembler statements are recognized by the compiler. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. When the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America was formed in 1788, it adopted (with minor revisions) the Westminster Confession of Faith, Larger and Shorter Catechisms (1647), as its secondary standards (the Bible itself being the only infallible rule of faith and practice). On the other hand, since all the fields in an assembly language statement are optional, blank lines are fine. This means you don’t have to remember any great variety of special case branching. You know, the programmer is invited to use some pre-defined symbols. Assembly language Consider the following statements 1. For instance, in the case where the content is an object, this means the object's contents (e. This requires a fairly deep understanding of the x86 architecture, especially the behavior of the cache(s), pipelines and alignment bias. The language was designed at IBM for scientific computing. See the terminology section below for information regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. 7 Implementing Common Control Structures in Assembly Language 2. Filing for Office for the April 7, 2020 Regular Municipal Election opens Friday, January 17, 2020 at 8:00 a. Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly. Just before a subroutine is called, registers which have to be preserved across the call are pushed, and then the parameter registers are set-up. Each assembly language statement appears on its own line in the source file. Basic Elements of Assembly Language Data Types. Assembly language is no longer widely used because modern compilers in high-level languages like C and Java, mostly use functions that have been optimized and written in assembly programming. ARM Assembly Language Example¶. Blank lines are useful for. Each iteration of our loop will then print a line feed. " A register is a little pot which can hold a number, there are only a few (at most 64), so they can't replace. On the SPARC an address is a 32-bit value. Web site Examples 4 Operand Types • Three basic types of operands: • Immediate – a constant integer (8, 16, or 32 bits) • value is encoded within the instruction • Register – the name of a register • register name is converted to a number and encoded within the. Which of the following statements is false 2. Nevertheless, assembly language is the most powerful computer programming language available, and it gives programmers the insight required to write effective code in high-level languages. You should know that computer can handle numbers and letter. 6 Boolean logic instructions 2. Write an assembly code that output a letter grade for 10 numbered grades according to the following table: The grades are 74, 109, 91, 86, 40, 76, 72, -6, 65, 94. The following table lists the assembler instructions by type, and provides the number of the page where the instruction is described. The language had splintered into dialects as the companies that licensed it adapted it for their computers, stuffing it into whatever memory was available and improvising functions for machine. • Exists a more efficient method (See section 3. It was initially developed by Dennis Ritchie as a system programming language to write operating system. • Where a sequence of assembly language statements can be represented by a macro, a macro. With the right punctuation, it can sometimes stand on its own, although it can also be a part of a sentence. Lawlor A jump instruction, like "jmp", just switches the CPU to executing a different piece of code. Yalagi Associate Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur. The next step up the abstraction ladder is to capture one’s programs in a low-level symbolic programming language called assembly language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the program’s statements and the computer’s machine code instructions. Converting Java Programs to Assembly Language Dhananjai M. The client selects the component modules and the program duration. We've just started branch statements in assembly language at college. The ARM assembly language source file for this example is seen below. More specifically it is a course that covers an older variant (IBM System/ 370 Assembler Language) of the assembly language of the IBM mainframe series of computers from the System/360 of the 1960's to the Z-Series of the present day. C is a procedural programming language. I used this in the run up to writing UCAS personal statements to focus students on skills and attributes rather than just exam results. The compiler requires a statement, but we do not want to do anything, so we insert a dummy or null statement. These instructions can change the flow of control in a. It is not just a single language, but rather a group of languages. The earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from instructions directly executed by hardware. if x > y then x:= x + y else x:= x - y How does a processor execute these? HLL (High Level Language) programs are machine independent. The Tibetan Member of Provincial Parliament (MPP), Bhutila Karpoche, called for the freedom of Tibetans, Uyghurs and Hong Kongers in the Canadian Legislative Assembly of Ontario on Dec 10. 1 Assembly language program structure 2. Code of Ethics. You can use Lua to organize and configure your application, and then call into Terra code when you need controllable performance. assembly language code generated by compilers and utilizing assembly language routines to speed up higher-level language programs. This ARM assembly language example is for the mbed LPC1768. Directives are instructions to the assembler, specifying an action to be taken during assembly. The conditional statements are implemented in the assembly language program using. “Rights" are things every child should have or be able to do. The state-ments in these languages are “high level” statements that must be translated into the bi-nary language of the machine. Chapter 1 - Why Study Assembly Language? This is a textbook for a course in assembly language. Programming Devices PLC can be reprogrammed through an appropriate programming device: Programming Console PC Hand Programmer. Assembly language lacks high-level conveniences such as variables and functions, and it is not portable between various families of processors. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. 8088 Assembly Language. instruction set ____ is the rules for exactly how statements must be written in a programming language. Find the latest news about GM automotive innovations, investor relations and more. Chapter 7 Assembly Language 7-2 translate these statements into LC-3 machine language. I used this in the run up to writing UCAS personal statements to focus students on skills and attributes rather than just exam results. 5 Shift and rotate instructions 2. Difference Between Object Oriented Programming and Structured Programming. " The idiot insult hurt deeply and I cried, but once the tears were dry I resolved to write a bit more on why C isn't assembly, or is at best an assembly for a strange, lobotomized machine. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. The assembly language stage is often skipped…. The programmer who uses an assembly language requires a translator to convert the assembly language program into machine language. There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in Java. In the IBM conditional assembly language, the most important statements are: MACRO and MEND - used to start and finish a macro; AIF, AGO, ANOP, AEND, AEXIT and MEXIT - used to control the generation of different assembly language statements, depending on the nature of the macro’s supplied arguments. In other words, the interpreter subroutine expects to find the code it is going to interpret following the assembly language instruction which called it. The three sections are:. Non-essential cookies are also used to tailor and improve services. what is assembly programming, disadvantages and advantages of assembly language 7:24 AM assembly No comments Assembly language programming is a symbolic representation of mechine language code of a spacific processor in addition to different types of statements that facilitate or make it easier to write a programe. 15 less than 4 times w? What was a sign of the changing culture in the late 1800s?. We've commented a little more than usual (by adding cond1, cond2, if-body, else-body) to make it easier to understand. For compatibility with previous versions, _asm is a synonym for __asm. 3 Assembly Language Program Structure A program written in assembly language consists of a sequence of statements that tell the computer to perform the desired operations. And finally the Hack language features symbols. ; Low memory usage - As assembly is processor specific it consumes less memory and are compiled in low memory space. (Of course, this was back in the eight-bit processor days. For the new mbed LPC11U24, the Cortex MO instruction set must be used and the I/O hardware setup is a bit different. This manual describes the syntax of assembler language statements, and provides information about writing source programs that are to be assembled by IBM High Level Assembler for MVS & VM & VSE, Licensed Program 5696-234, hereafter referred to as High Level Assembler, or simply the assembler. Learning to Read x86 Assembly Language How does your code talk to the machine? Assembly doesn't have to be only for debugging, but its syntax can be hard to wrap your head around. Control structures in assembly Two strategies for if statements without else blocks: 1. Assembly language programming under UNIX ® is highly undocumented. Assembly languages are low-level languages for programming computers and were first developed in the 1950s. This is the chip we introduced in the previous article. Generally, statements in assembly language are written using short codes for the instruction and arguments, such as "MOV $12 SP", as. Inline assembly is important because of its ability to operate and make its output visible on C/C++ variables. 5 Short Circuit vs. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. operating system The ____ monitors the overall activity of the computer and provides services such as memory management, input/output activities, and storage management. Purpose of NOP instruction and align statement in x86 assembly. It is not just a single language, but rather a group of languages. An assembly language is almost exactly like the machine code that a computer can understand, except that it uses words in place of numbers. GCC uses AT&T syntax and this is what we. Terra was designed so that it can run independently. The concept of type is present only implicitly in how data is used. Assembly Language S. 3 LOOPNZ and LOOPNE • LOOPNZ (LOOPNE) is a conditional loop instruction • Syntax:. Irvine, Kip R. Assembly language branch statements? We've just started branch statements in assembly language at college. The programming language C++ was designed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Laboratories in the early ____. Assembler directives are assembler commands that are used. An assembly language program consists of assembly language statements, statements that define data, and some additional information that helps in the translation. This web page examines assembly languages in a general manner. The client selects the component modules and the program duration. It is the language that the. It allows the designer to focus on the logic of the algorithm without being distracted by details of language syntax. Assembly Language introduction summary. Second, the line could have useful commands or instructions to the left of the comment. All children have the same rights. ) can be used. A computer understands instructions in machine code, i. Recall that each assembly language statement is on a separate line. The earliest programming languages were assembly languages, not far removed from instructions directly executed by hardware. In this mode, any program may address any memory or device in the computer. Syntax of Assembly Language Statements. in the form of 0s and 1s. assembly Language isn't the top-rated element ever yet try to be high quality. In most assembly languages, each instruction corresponds to a single machine instruction; however, some assembly language instructions can generate several machine instructions. Several statements may need to be combined depending on the nature of the research. Assembly Language Statements Three types of statements in assembly language Typically, one statement should appear on a line 1. 5 Short Circuit vs. It is not just a single language, but rather a group of languages. Let us see the conditional statements in the assembly language program and conditional statements used in macros. Assembly programming is often a crucial starting point when computer programmers are learning their craft. Extended Mnemonics for Branching The assembler compiler supports a set of Extended Mnemonics for Branching that simplify the initial coding and makes the code easier to read and understand. I do expect you to read the sections on the Motorola 68000. It can be used for direct hardware manipulations. Directives are instructions to the assembler, specifying an action to be taken during assembly. Assembler directives are assembler commands that are used. An assembly language program consists of assembly language statements, statements that define data, and some additional information that helps in the translation. First Pass: scan program file find all labels and calculate the corresponding addresses; this is called the symbol table Second Pass: convert instructions to machine language, using information from symbol table. A source statement will contain one or more of the following elements: Label - acts as a marker in the source code, useful as the destination in branching statements and subroutine calls. The Third Session of the 59th Legislative Assembly stands adjourned until Tuesday, March 10, 2020. Assembly language Consider the following statements 1. " A register is a little pot which can hold a number, there are only a few (at most 64), so they can't replace. Advantages: The symbolic programming of Assembly Language is easier to understand and saves a lot of time and effort of the programmer. This is not one of them. Besides the cryptic syntax and the high level of understanding the semi-official documentation assumes, there exists very little information about GCC inline assembler coding. Extended Mnemonics for Branching The assembler compiler supports a set of Extended Mnemonics for Branching that simplify the initial coding and makes the code easier to read and understand. In most assembly languages, each instruction corresponds to a single machine instruction; however, some assembly language instructions can generate. First of all, there is the Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in C, C++ or assembly language. edu) CSA Department Miami University 1. With emergent technological advances over the last two decades, the profession could not ignore the necessity for more clarity around the complex ethical issues that arise with the use of var. There is also information about assembly instructions on Conditional assembly instructions. Assembly language is one step ahead of machine language. Assembly Language Bubble Sort By Adrian Dery. The assembler directives or pseudo-ops tell the assembler about the various aspects of the assembly process. Each source statement consists of a sequence of ASCII characters ending with a carriage return. Machine Language Assembly provides convenient symbolic representatrepresentat onion much easier than writing down numbers e. Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture, in. The asm statement allows you to include assembly instructions directly within C code. It is not just a single language, but rather a group of languages. Assembly Process Convert assembly language file (. So assembly language suffers from the defect of non-standardization; Examples. This declaration is conditionally-supported and implementation defined, meaning that it may not be present and, even when provided by the implementation, it does not have a fixed meaning. Every imperative statement usually translates into one machine instruction. Explain the Statements Present in Assembly Language. –Either Assembly language instructions, or statements called directives. There are a number of excellent, comprehensive, and in-depth texts on MIPS assembly language programming. However, when I link with a. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 2003. Code generation for an if-else statement is straight forward. In most assembly languages, each instruction corresponds to a single machine instruction; however, some assembly language instructions can generate. Assembly language statements: Imperative Statements-Indicate an action to be performed during the execution of assembled program. Irvine, Kip R. This chapter describes, in detail, the syntax and usage rules of each assembler instruction. Usually, it's good to comment each line of assembly code. Other PC assembly language books still teach how to program the 8086 processor that the original PC used in 1981! The 8086 processor only supported real mode. In fall 2015, the Executive Council endorsed the MLA’s joining with twenty-eight other scholarly societies to oppose legislation that would facilitate carrying handguns on college campuses. Chrysler is a family brand of sedans & minivans. This section outlines the types of statements that apply to assembly language. Around 10 years ago, I became obsessed with computer operating systems. Macros are basically a text substitution mechanism. Each statement must be one of the following types: An empty statement is one that contains nothing other than spaces, tabs, or formfeed characters. When a syntax distinction between C and C++ exists, it is explicitly noted. a = x + y – z 2. Every imperative statement usually translates into one machine instruction. Assembly Language S. Assembly language programs are machine specific. end-Ends a program to be processed by an assembler-Any statement following the end directive is ignored 2. print multiple statements in next line assembly language, Search on print multiple statements in next line assembly language. Assembly language statements are entered one statement per line. Even in moments of deep political conflict and division we have been satisfied that the voting process and the count has been completely accurate. 8086 Assembly Language This language was presented to create a few simple programs and present how the CPU executed code. Assembly language (also known as ASM) is a programming language for computers and other. The do nothing statement is as old as programming languages. Being that this is an assembly language tutorial we will provide a solution that involves a structure of two cascading if statements to print the words "fizz" and/or "buzz" and an else statement in case these fail, to print the integer as an ascii value. A computer cannot really understand an assembly program directly. The provisional version is replaced by a final version some weeks later. I have to use BHI (branch if higher than zero) but the EASy68k assembler keeps reporting it as an error, calling it an undefined symbol. During macro expansion, the macro call statement is replaced by a sequence of assembly statements. by Chris Bone Owners of S. So let us just implement this in Assembly language and try to figure out how we can write these statements using Assembly language with 8051 instruction set. ; Low memory usage - As assembly is processor specific it consumes less memory and are compiled in low memory space. •Statement labels -Meta-level language facilities •Macros •Conditional assembly -Modularization facilities The assembly language level is the last level we will look at, and the highest level you will probably never touch! A radical shift: the assembly language level is the first level implemented via translation. Integrate with Salesforce with our seamless web to anything solution. The programmer who uses an assembly language requires a translator to convert the assembly language program into machine language. It had several purposes. •Directives (pseudo-instructions) give directions to the assembler about how it should translate the Assembly language instructions into machine code. Assembly language programming under UNIX ® is highly undocumented. You've got to know how to use them and what they can do. This study tests the market efficiency of the South Korean stock market by examining returns on stocks of the constituents of the KOSPI 50 from 2000 to 2014 following large 1-month price decreases and increases. The following table lists the assembler instructions by type, and provides the number of the page where the instruction is described. Between an assembly-language block and an interpretive block there will be a call (in assembly language) to the interpreter subroutine. It is important to keep in mind that assembly language is a low-level language, so instructions in assembly language are closely related to their 32-bit representation in machine language. , its properties) can be altered. Chapter 3 Assembly Language Fundamentals Objectives After reading this Chapter, you should be able to understand or do each of the following: • Know how to represent integer constants, expressions, real number constants, character constants, and string constants in assembly language. Even though there are many high-levellanguages that are currently in demand, assembly programming language is popularly used in many applications. This ARM assembly language example is for the mbed LPC1768. 5 Shift and rotate instructions 2. (B) Plans for community outreach and public awareness before, during, and after a wildfire, including language notification in English, Spanish, and the top three primary languages used in the state other than English or Spanish, as determined by the commission based on the United States Census data. The language had splintered into dialects as the companies that licensed it adapted it for their computers, stuffing it into whatever memory was available and improvising functions for machine.